The dissection of R genes and locus Pc5.1 in Phytophthora capsici infection provides a novel view of disease resistance in peppers

stjosephs-hospital

Background: Phytophthora capsici root rot (PRR) is a disastrous disease in peppers (Capsicum spp.) caused by soilborne oomycete with typical symptoms of necrosis and constriction at the basal stem and consequent plant wilting.

 

Most studies on the QTL mapping of P. capsici resistance suggested a consensus broad-spectrum QTL on chromosome 5 named Pc.5.1 regardless of P. capsici isolates and resistant resources. In addition, all these reports proposed NBS-ARC domain genes as candidate genes controlling resistance.

Results: We screened out 10 PRR-resistant resources from 160 Capsicum germplasm and inspected the response of locus Pc.5.1 and NBS-ARC genes during P. capsici infection by comparing the root transcriptomes of resistant pepper 305R and susceptible pepper 372S.

 

To dissect the structure of Pc.5.1, we anchored genetic markers onto pepper genomic sequence and made an extended Pc5.1 (Ext-Pc5.1) located at 8.35 Mb-38.13 Mb on chromosome 5 which covered all Pc5.1 reported in publications.

A total of 571 NBS-ARC genes were mined from the genome of pepper CM334 and 34 genes were significantly affected by P. capsici infection in either 305R or 372S. Only 5 inducible NBS-ARC genes had LRR domains and none of them was positioned at Ext-Pc5.1. Ext-Pc5.1 did show strong response to P. capsici infection and there were a total of 44 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), but no candidate genes proposed by previous publications was included. Snakin-1 (SN1), a well-known antimicrobial peptide gene located at Pc5.1, was significantly decreased in 372S but not in 305R.

Moreover, there was an impressive upregulation of sugar pathway genes in 305R, which was confirmed by metabolite analysis of roots. The biological processes of histone methylation, histone phosphorylation, DNA methylation, and nucleosome assembly were strongly activated in 305R but not in 372S, indicating an epigenetic-related defense mechanism.

Conclusions: Those NBS-ARC genes that were suggested to contribute to Pc5.1 in previous publications did not show any significant response in P. capsici infection and there were no significant differences of these genes in transcription levels between 305R and 372S.

 

Other pathogen defense-related genes like SN1 might account for Pc5.1. Our study also proposed the important role of sugar and epigenetic regulation in the defense against P. capsici.

 

Bioinformatics analysis and identification of genes and molecular pathways in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head

 

Background: Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common hip joint disease and is difficult to be diagnosed early. At present, the pathogenesis of steroid-induced ONFH remains unclear, and recognized and effective diagnostic biomarkers are deficient. The present study aimed to identify potentially important genes and signaling pathways involved in steroid-induced ONFH and investigate their molecular mechanisms.

 

Methods: Microarray data sets GSE123568 (peripheral blood) and GSE74089 (cartilage) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 34 ONFH samples and 14 control samples. Morpheus software and Venn diagram were used to identify DEGs and co-expressed DEGs, respectively. Besides, we conducted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genome (KEGG) and gene ontology (GO) pathway enrichment analysis.

We construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network through GEO2R and used cytoHubba to divide the PPI network into multiple sub-networks. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to verify the bioinformatics analysis results.

Results: A total of 118 intersecting DEGs were obtained between the peripheral blood and cartilage samples, including 40 upregulated genes and 78 downregulated genes. Then, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs focused on the signaling pathways related to staphylococcus aureus infection, leishmaniasis, antigen processing, and presentation, as well as asthma and graft-versus-host disease.

Downregulated genes were concentrated in the FoxO signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, signaling pathway regulating stem cell pluripotency, and mTOR signaling pathway. Some hub genes with high interactions such as CXCR1, FPR1, MAPK1, FOXO3, FPR2, CXCR2, and TYROBP were identified in the PPI network.

The results of qRT-PCR demonstrated that CXCR1, FPR1, and TYROBP were upregulated while MAPK1 was downregulated in peripheral blood of steroid-induced ONFH patients. This was consistent with the bioinformatics analysis.

Conclusions: The present study would provide novel insight into the genes and associated pathways involved in steroid-induced ONFH. CXCR1, FPR1, TYROBP, and MAPK1 may be used as potential drug targets and biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of steroid-induced ONFH.

stjosephs-hospital

stjosephs-hospital

Cultural Evolution of Genetic Heritability

Behavioral genetics and cultural evolution have both revolutionized our understanding of human behavior-largely independent of each other. Here we reconcile these two fields under a dual inheritance framework, offering a more nuanced understanding of the interaction between genes and culture.

Going beyond typical analyses of gene-environment interactions, we describe the cultural dynamics that shape these interactions by shaping the environment and population structure. A cultural evolutionary approach can explain, for example, how factors such as rates of innovation and diffusion, density of cultural sub-groups, and tolerance for behavioral diversity impact heritability estimates, thus yielding predictions for different social contexts.

  • Moreover, when cumulative culture functionally overlaps with genes, genetic effects become masked, unmasked, or even reversed, and the causal effects of an identified gene become confounded with features of the cultural environment.
  • The manner of confounding is specific to a particular society at a particular time, but a WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic) sampling problem obscures this boundedness.
  • Cultural evolutionary dynamics are typically missing from models of gene-to-phenotype causality, hindering generalizability of genetic effects across societies and across time.
  • We lay out a reconciled framework and use it to predict the ways in which heritability should differ between societies, between socioeconomic levels and other groupings within some societies but not others, and over the life course.
  • An integrated cultural evolutionary behavioral genetic approach cuts through the nature-nurture debate and helps resolve controversies in topics such as IQ.

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS9404239-5x01mL 5x0.1mL
EUR 1740

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS859366-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS859366-01mLAF405L 0.1mL(AF405L)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS859366-01mLAF405S 0.1mL(AF405S)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS859366-01mLAF610 0.1mL(AF610)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS859366-01mLAF635 0.1mL(AF635)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS855382-01mg 0.1mg
EUR 345

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS855382-01mLAF405L 0.1mL(AF405L)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS855382-01mLAF405S 0.1mL(AF405S)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS855382-01mLAF610 0.1mL(AF610)
EUR 565

NFKB3 Antibody

MBS855382-01mLAF635 0.1mL(AF635)
EUR 565

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Antibody

abx037885-100ug 100 ug
EUR 469.2

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Antibody

abx038310-100ug 100 ug
EUR 469.2

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Antibody

abx037885-100g 100 µg
EUR 337.5

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Antibody

abx038310-1mg 1 mg
EUR 337.5

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Polyclonal Antibody

CAU27518-100ul 100ul
EUR 217.9

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Polyclonal Antibody

CAU27518-200ul 200ul
EUR 272.2

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Polyclonal Antibody

CAU27519-100ul 100ul
EUR 212.2

Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) Polyclonal Antibody

CAU27519-200ul 200ul
EUR 265.4

Polyclonal Antibody to Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

PAA616Hu01 100ul
EUR 221

Polyclonal Antibody to Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

PAA616Mu01 100ul
EUR 227

Polyclonal Antibody to Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

PAA616Ra01 100ul
EUR 239

anti- NFKB1 antibody

FNab10143 100µg
EUR 606.3
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB1

anti- NFKB1 antibody

FNab05702 100µg
EUR 606.3
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB1

anti- NFKB1 antibody

FNab05703 100µg
EUR 702
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB1

anti- NFKB2 antibody

FNab05705 100µg
EUR 606.3
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB2

anti- NFKB2 antibody

FNab05706 100µg
EUR 658.5
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB2

Anti- p52 (NFkB2) Antibody

GWB-AB58EB 0.1 ml Ask for price

Anti- p50 (NFKB1) Antibody

GWB-747B10 0.1 ml Ask for price

Anti-NFKB3 Antibody

39294 100ul
EUR 479

Anti-NFKB3 Antibody

Y058181 100 µl
EUR 145

Anti-NFKB p50 (NFKB1) Antibody

GWB-CC6745 100 ul Ask for price

Anti-NFkB p105/p50/NFKB1 Antibody

PB9149 100ug/vial
EUR 400.8

Anti-NFkB p100/p52/NFKB2 Antibody

PB9150 100ug/vial
EUR 400.8

Anti-NFkB p100/p52/NFKB2 Antibody

PA1946 100ug/vial
EUR 400.8

Anti-NFkB p100/p52/NFKB2 Antibody

PA1946-1 100ug/vial
EUR 352.8

Anti-NFkB p105/p50/NFKB1 Antibody

PA2111 100ug/vial
EUR 352.8

Anti-NFkB p105/p50/NFKB1 Antibody

PA2111-1 100ug/vial
EUR 352.8

Recombinant NFkB3 (RELA/p65) protein

MBS389143-002mg 0.02mg
EUR 610

Recombinant NFkB3 (RELA/p65) protein

MBS389143-1mg 1mg
EUR 4505

Recombinant NFkB3 (RELA/p65) protein

MBS389143-5x1mg 5x1mg
EUR 20075

Anti- cRel (NFkB) Antibody

GWB-393707 0.1 ml Ask for price

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU55569-100ug 100ug
EUR 918.5

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU55569-1mg 1mg
EUR 3606.2

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU55569-50ug 50ug
EUR 554.9

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU54244-100ug 100ug
EUR 589.6

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU54244-1mg 1mg
EUR 2610.4

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU54244-50ug 50ug
EUR 473

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU44376-100ug 100ug
EUR 393.8

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU44376-1mg 1mg
EUR 1747.2

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPU44376-50ug 50ug
EUR 316.8

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPA616Fi01 10ug
EUR 231

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPA616Hu01 10ug
EUR 191

Recombinant Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

RPA616Mu01 10ug
EUR 128

anti- NFKB1,p105,p50-Specific antibody

FNab05704 100µg
EUR 702
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB1,p105,p50-Specific

anti- NFKB2,p52,p100-Specific antibody

FNab05707 100µg
EUR 658.5
Description: Antibody raised against NFKB2,p52,p100-Specific

anti- NFKBIE antibody

FNab05708 100µg
EUR 658.5
Description: Antibody raised against NFKBIE

anti- NFKBIZ antibody

FNab05709 100µg
EUR 606.3
Description: Antibody raised against NFKBIZ

Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S893) NFKB1 Antibody

A00283S893 100ul
EUR 380
Description: Boster Bio Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S893) NFKB1 Antibody catalog # A00283S893. Tested in ELISA, IHC, WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human.

Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S907) NFKB1 Antibody

A00283S907 100ul
EUR 380
Description: Boster Bio Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S907) NFKB1 Antibody catalog # A00283S907. Tested in ELISA, IP, IHC, WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human.

Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S932) NFKB1 Antibody

A00283S932 100ul
EUR 380
Description: Boster Bio Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p105 (S932) NFKB1 Antibody catalog # A00283S932. Tested in ELISA, IHC, WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat.

Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p100 (S872) NFKB2 Antibody

A01228S872 100ul
EUR 380
Description: Boster Bio Anti-Phospho-N kappa-p100 (S872) NFKB2 Antibody catalog # A01228S872. Tested in ELISA, WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse.

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 (aa 930-934) Polyclonal Antibody

CPB-1129RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 (aa 160-170) Polyclonal Antibody

CPB-1169RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB2 (aa 160-171) Polyclonal Antibody

CPB-1176RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit anti IkBa (NFKB1A) Polyclonal Antibody

TA354676 100 µg Ask for price

Human Transcription factor p65 protein (NFKB3)

1-CSB-RP039844h
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Transcription factor p65 protein(NFKB3),partial expressed in E.coli

Human Transcription factor p65 protein (NFKB3)

1-CSB-RP039874h
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 100ug
  • 10ug
  • 1MG
  • 200ug
  • 500ug
  • 50ug
Description: Recombinant Human Transcription factor p65 protein(NFKB3),partial expressed in E.coli

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49304-48T 48T
EUR 337.82

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49304-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 2292.35

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49304-96T 96T
EUR 482.6

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08193-48T 48T
EUR 542.78

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08193-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 3683.15

Rat Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08193-96T 96T
EUR 775.4

ELISA Kit for Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

SEA616Hu 96Т
EUR 630

ELISA Kit for Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3)

SEA616Ra 96Т
EUR 684

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB2 Polyclonal Antibody, aa.864-868

CPB-930RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB2 Polyclonal Antibody, aa.868-872

CPB-931RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 Polyclonal Antibody, aa.335-339

CPB-932RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 Polyclonal Antibody, aa.891-895

CPB-933RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 Polyclonal Antibody, aa.905-909

CPB-934RH 100 ul
EUR 552

Rabbit anti IkBa (pS32/36) (NFKB1A) Polyclonal Antibody

TA354674 100 µg Ask for price

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49303-48T 48T
EUR 311.15

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49303-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 2111.38

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN49303-96T 96T
EUR 444.5

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU11278-48T 48T
EUR 600.25

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU11278-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 4073.13

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU11278-96T 96T
EUR 857.5

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08192-48T 48T
EUR 500.5

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08192-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 3396.25

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKU08192-96T 96T
EUR 715

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN52389-48T 48T
EUR 373.38

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN52389-5x96T 5x96T
EUR 2533.65

Human Transcription Factor P65 (NFKB3) ELISA Kit

EKN52389-96T 96T
EUR 533.4

Anti- NFkB p65 (Rel A) Antibody

GWB-34C0DE 0.1 ml Ask for price

Anti-IKBL1 NFKBIL1 Antibody

A05691-1 100ul
EUR 380
Description: Boster Bio Anti-IKBL1 NFKBIL1 Antibody catalog # A05691-1. Tested in ELISA, WB applications. This antibody reacts with Human, Mouse, Rat.

NFKB2 Rabbit anti-Human Polyclonal (aa38-343) Antibody

MBS2402498-005mL 0.05mL
EUR 615

NFKB2 Rabbit anti-Human Polyclonal (aa38-343) Antibody

MBS2402498-5x005mL 5x0.05mL
EUR 2605

Rabbit anti IkBa (Paired S32/36) (NFKB1A) Polyclonal Antibody

TA354675 100 µg Ask for price

Anti-IKB beta/NFKBIB Antibody

PB9292 100ug/vial
EUR 400.8

Anti-IKB alpha/NFKBIA Antibody

PB9291 100ug/vial
EUR 400.8

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx255851-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

20-abx156040
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Pig Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx361108-96tests 96 tests
EUR 990

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx255851-1096tests 10 × 96 tests Ask for price

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx255851-596tests 5 × 96 tests Ask for price

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx156040-100g 100 µg
EUR 6075

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx156040-10g 10 µg
EUR 675

Rat Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx156040-50g 50 µg
EUR 3212.5

Human Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

20-abx152945
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Mouse Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx254289-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Human Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx252815-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Human Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx570125-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Mouse Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx570127-96tests 96 tests
EUR 801.6

Sheep Transcription factor p65 / NFKB3 (RELA) ELISA Kit

abx364265-96tests 96 tests
EUR 1111.2

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 Polyclonal Antibody, Phospho-Ser932

CPB-782RH 100 ul
EUR 670.8

Rabbit Anti-Human NFKB1 Polyclonal Antibody, Phospho-Ser927

CPB-827RH 100 ul
EUR 670.8

NFKB1 antibody

10R-11003 100 ug
EUR 344
Description: Mouse monoclonal NFKB1 antibody

NFKB1 antibody

10R-11155 100 ug
EUR 344
Description: Mouse Monoclonal NFKB1 antibody

NFKB2 antibody

10R-1605 100 ug
EUR 614.4
Description: Mouse monoclonal NFKB2 antibody

NFKB1 antibody

20-PR03 100 ul Ask for price
Description: Rabbit polyclonal NFKB1 antibody

NFKB2 Antibody

37182 100ul
EUR 319

NFKB2 Antibody

37182-100ul 100ul
EUR 302.4

NFKB1 Antibody

35588 100ul
EUR 319

NFKB1 Antibody

35588-100ul 100ul
EUR 302.4

NFKB2 antibody

38583 100ul
EUR 439

NFKB2 antibody

38583-100ul 100ul
EUR 302.4

NFKB1 antibody

39087 100ul
EUR 439

NFKB1 antibody

39087-100ul 100ul
EUR 302.4

NFKB2 Antibody

1-CSB-PA785439
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against NFKB2. Recognizes NFKB2 from Human, Mouse. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, IHC;ELISA:1:1000-1:2000, IHC:1:15-1:50

NFKB2 Antibody

1-CSB-PA821156
  • Ask for price
  • Ask for price
  • 100ul
  • 50ul
Description: A polyclonal antibody against NFKB2. Recognizes NFKB2 from Human, Mouse. This antibody is Unconjugated. Tested in the following application: ELISA, WB;ELISA:1:2000-1:10000, WB:1:1000-1:5000

NFKB1 Antibody

E035588 100μg/100μl
EUR 255
Description: Available in various conjugation types.

NFKB2 Antibody

E037182 100μg/100μl
EUR 255
Description: Available in various conjugation types.
Steven Washington

Related Post