Development and Application of a Prophage Integrase Typing Scheme for Group B Streptococcus

Development and Application of a Prophage Integrase Typing Scheme for Group B Streptococcus

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive pathogen that mainly affects humans, livestock and fish. Mobile genetic elements play an important role in the evolution of GBS, its adaptation to species and host niches, as well as its pathogenicity. In particular, lysogenic proposals have been associated with a high virulence of some strains and with their ability to cause invasive infections in humans. It is therefore important to detect and accurately detect the propheavments in GBS genomes. Several bioinformatic tools for the identification of prophèvations in bacterial genomes are available online. However, the composition of their baseline database is affected by the composition of most of these programs.

The absence of GBS-specific databases leads to a lack of recognition of all the prophets to the species. In addition, the performance of these programs is affected by genome fragmentation in the case of genomic drafts leading to underestimating the number of phages. They also prove little practical when dealing with large sets of genome data and do not offer a quick way to classify bacteriophages. We have developed a GBS-specific method for selecting genome assemblies in the presence of prophages and to classify them according to a reproducible strike scheme. This has been achieved through extensive research of a large number of high-quality GBS sequences (N = 572) from different host and country species to create a database of integry phage types, on which the schema is based.

The proposed typing scheme comprises 12 integration sites and sixteen prophibe integry types, including several subtypes per integration site and integry genes that were not specific to the site. Two inducible chromosomal islands of putative phage (PICI) and their insertion sites were also identified during these analyzes. The phages were common and diverse in all major clonal complex associated with human disease and detected in isolates of all animal species and continent included in the study.

This database will facilitate additional work on the prevalence and role of prophèvations in the evolution of GBS and identify the roles of Picis in GBS and prophaging in Hypervirulent ST283 as a subsequent search areas.

The ideas of the genome of Ethiopian indigenous sheep populations reveal the structure of the population related to the morphology of tail and phylogeography

Ethiopian sheep living in different climate areas with contrasting morphologies are a subject of molecular-genetic research. The elucidation of their genetic diversity and genetic structure is essential for designing appropriate reproductive and conservation strategies. The study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity and the structure of the population of eight populations of Ethiopian sheep. In total, 115 blood samples were collected from four populations of Ethiopian sheep that include Washera, Farta and Wollo (short-tailed) and Horro (long fat).

DNA was extracted using the Quick-Dna ™ Miniprep Plus kit. All DNA samples were genotyped using Ovine 50 K SNP Beadchip. Deduce genetic relations of Ethiopian sheep at the national, continental and global levels, data genotypes on four Ethiopian sheep (Adilo, Arsi-Bale, Menz and the Black Head Somali) and East Sheep, North and South Africa, Medium -Orient and Asia were included in the study as a reference.

The average genetic diversity of Ethiopian sheep populations ranged from 0.352 ± 0.14 for Horro to 0.379 ± 0.14 for Arsi-Bale sheep. Structure of the population and main components analyzes of eight Ethiopian native sheep revealed four distinct genetic cluster groups according to their tail phenotype and geographical distribution. Fat short sheep did not represent a group of genetic clusters. Ethiopian fatty croup sheep share a common genetic background with fat kenyan sheep.

 Development and Application of a Prophage Integrase Typing Scheme for Group B Streptococcus

Rivière biofilms suitable for anthropogenic disturbances are more resistant to WWTP entries

The sensitivity and spatial recovery of river sediment biofilms over 1 km after the entry of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) located in two rivers reach a different incidence of anthropogenic influence were studied. Our results showed different effects of WWTP inputs on microbial communities and their downstream responses in both attacks. First, at the height of the scope, we observed an inhibition of certain microbial functions (microbial respiration and extracellular enzyme activities) and strong changes in composition of the bacterial community (Arrn 16s gene) while a Increased microbial biomass and activity and less effect on microbial diversity and community composition have been shown within the lower reach.

Secondly, in the lower range, we observed rapid spatial recovery (about 200 m downstream of the effluent), because most functions and community composition were similar to those of the reference sites. On the contrary, the composition of the bacterial community and the quality of water within the upper reach has always been modified after 1 km of the effluents of the WWTP. Our results indicate that upstream site biofilms were more sensitive to the effect of WWTPs due to a lower degree of tolerance after a disturbance than communities located in other anthropically impacted sites.

Molecular Tuberculosis Tests (TB) have the potential to help achieve the three million people with non-diagnosed or unmarked tuberculosis each year and improve the quality of TB patients of TB of Quality quality of the quality of precise and rapid results, including a rapid sensitivity of the drugs. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the use of molecular nucleic acid amplification tests (NaATs) for the detection of tuberculosis instead of smear microscopy, as they are able to detect the Tuberculosis more specifically, especially in patients with pacifacillary disease and people living with HIV.

It is important to note that some of these approved tests can detect mycobacterial genes mutations associated with anti-TB drug resistance, allowing adaptation of effective TB treatment. Currently, a wide range of molecular tests for the detection of tuberculosis is being developed and evaluated and, while some are intended for reference laboratory use, others are intended for care care settings. and peripheral care.

Steven Washington

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